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Chicago Manual of Style

About this Guide

This guide is intended to cover only the Notes and Bibliography system.

For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and a specific example will be provided.

The following format will be used:

  • Full Note - use the first time that you cite a source.
  • Subsequent Note - use after the first time you cite a source.
  • Bibliography - use when you are compiling the Bibliography that appears at the end of your paper.

Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.). 

General Formatting

The Chicago Style footnote system uses superscript numbers. These numbers should be placed at the end of the sentence (or clause) in which the cited material appears. Use your software's formatting menu to change the number to a superscript.

Footnotes and endnotes should be detailed on first references; second and later references then take a short form that uses either the author’s name and a page number or the Latin term ibid and a page number if needed.

Ask your instructor what kind of notes you should use.

  1. Footnotes are placed at the bottom of each page.
  2. Endnotes are placed at the end of the paper.

Word-processing software supports either approach, but footnotes are the more frequently used method.

Chicago Style lists of references should be alphabetized by the author’s surname, and presented as a “Bibliography” page that may include all sources you consulted. Ask your instructor what your list of references should include—all the sources you consulted, or only those you cite in the paper?