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APA Citation Style Guide (7th Edition)

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Websites & Web pages

If you refer to an entire website in your paper, but do not include any a specific idea, fact or document, then just include the URL of the website in parentheses within the text.

In-text Example:
The MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia ( allows users to browse for topics and find information on a variety of health topics and medical procedures.


Webpage (personal author):


Author, A. A. (Date). Title of webpage. Website. http://...


Heerema, E. (2019). How dementia is diagnosed. Verywell Health.


Webpage (corporate author):


Corporate Author. (Date). Title of webpage. http://...


Tk’emlúps te Secwepemc. (2018). Our history.


Webpage (no date):


Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of webpage. http://...


Royal Institute of British Architects. (n.d.). Shaping the future: Careers in architecture.


Webpage (no author):

Note: Webpages that appear to have no author usually have a corporate author that takes responsibility for the content.  If no one takes responsibility for the content, then you should be very, very cautious about citing it, but if there truly is no author, then start the citation with the website name.


Site name. (2010). Webpage title. http://...


World Health Organization. (2018). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety.


Blogs & Social Media

Twitter, Instagram & TikTok
  • Present the name of the individual or group author the same as you would for any other reference. Then provide the Twitter/Instagram/TikTok handle (beginning with the @ sign) in square brackets, followed by a period.
  • Provide the first 20 words of the post as the title. Count a URL, a hashtag, or an emoji as one word each, and include them in the reference if they fall within the first 20 words.
  • If the post includes an image, a video, a poll, or a thumbnail image with a link, indicate that in brackets after the title: [Image attached], [Video attached], [Thumbnail with link attached].
  • The same format used for Twitter is also used for Instagram and TikTok


APA Databases [@APA_Databases]. (2019, September 5). Help students avoid plagiarismWeb emoji of crossing hands and researchers navigate the publication process. More details available in the 7th edition @APA_Style table [Tweet]. Twitter.


APAStyle: How to create references for Twitter/Instagram/TikTok


Facebook post:
  • Provide the first 20 words of the Facebook post as the title. Count a URL or other link, a hashtag, or an emoji as one word each, and include them in the reference if they fall within the first 20 words. 
  • If a status update includes images, videos, thumbnail links to outside sources, or content from another Facebook post (such as when sharing a link), indicate that in square brackets.


News From Science. (2019, June 21). Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system—and beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook.

APAStyle: How to create references for Facebook


Blog post:

Note: To find the author's name, look to the beginning or end of the post for "Posted by", or an "About" link on the site. If you can't find the author's real name, use the screen name.

Blog posts follow the same format as a journal article.


Author, A. A. (Year, Day Month). Title of blog post. Name of blog. http://...


Perelman, D. (2017, May 24). Broccoli rubble farro salad. Smitten Kitchen.

APAStyle: How to create a reference for a blog post


Avoid citing Wikipedia.  If you need to use information from Wikipedia, look in the "References" and the "External Links" sections for credible sources for that information.  If you can't find a better source for the information and simply must use it, then include the date that you accessed it in your citation.


Title of Entry. (date). In Wikipedia.


Utilitarianism. (2019, January 13). In Wikipedia.

Tip: Cite the archived version of the page so that readers can retrieve the version you used. Select "View history" and then the time and date of the version you used. If a wiki does not provide permanent links to archived versions of the page, include the URL for the entry and the retrieval date.