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APA Citation Style Guide

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Classical Works

Classical works (e.g. religious texts; ancient Greek & Roman writings) are typically only cited in-text and not in the reference list.

Template:
(Name of the Book (often abbreviated) Chapter:Verse [if applicable]
      Version being Cited [if applicable])
 
In-text Citation:
(1 Cor. 13:1 Revised Standard Version)
or
(Qur'an 5:3-4)

Personal Communications

Personal communications may be letters, e-mails, interviews, telephone conversations, or your own class notes. Unpublished, unrecoverable personal communications are not included in the reference list because they do not provide recoverable data. Cite in text only.
 
Template:
(Sender First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication, Month Day,
      Year)
 
In-text citation:
(J. Brown, personal communication, September 26, 2017)

Moodle, Lectures and Course Packs

Lectures in Moodle

This format would be used if you were citing a set of notes and/or documents from a lecture (e.g. PDF, Excel, Word document, or PowerPoint slides provided by your instructor).   
 
Tip: Cite information from your own personal notes from a lecture as personal communication and refer to it only in the body of your essay. Follow the format examples in the personal communication section.
Tip: If you retrieved lecture documents through a password protected portal such as Moodle, you should not include the long URL from the entry, instead use the homepage of Moodle (i.e. https://moodle.tru.ca).
 
Templates:
 
In-text Citation:
(Author Surname, Year)
 
Reference:
Author, A. A. (Year). Lecture title [Format]Retrieved from Thompson Rivers University Course Name: Moodle site.
 
Examples:
In-text Citation:
(Gill, 2011)
 
Reference:
Gill, M. (2011). Documenting history [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from the Thompson Rivers University HIST 2170: https://moodle.tru.ca
 

Note for Open Learning Students: For course manuals that have been posted to Moodle, use "Thompson Rivers University Open Learning" as the corporate author.

Example:

Thompson Rivers University Open Learning. (2012). Course Manual for English 1101. Retrieved from Thompson Rivers University website: https://moodle.tru.ca

Coursepacks:

When citing material that has been reprinted in a coursepack, cite the original source whenever possible.  If you can't find the original source of the material, then treat it as if it was part of an anthology or edited book.

Template:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle of article. In C. C. Compiler (Ed.), Coursepack title (Course Name and number). Kamloops, BC: Thompson Rivers University.

Example:

Daft, R. L. (2012). Leading change. In D. Bringeland (Ed.), Unlock the possibilities (BBUS 3671). Kamloops, BC: Thomson Rivers University.

 

Note for Open Learning Students: use "Thompson Rivers University Open Learning" as the corporate author.

Example:

Thompson Rivers University Open Learning. (2012). Course Manual for English 1100. Kamloops, BC: Thompson Rivers University.

Secondary Sources

Sometimes an author will refer to another author's research.  If the original source is relevant to your research, then you should make every effort to find it and read it.  If this is not possible, then the in-text citation should include both the source that you have read and the source that you have not read, but only the source that you have actually read should be included in the references.

Templates:

In-text citation:

(Author Surname, as cited in Author Surname [of the source you read], Year)

or

(as cited in Author Surname [of the source you read], Year)

Reference:

Author, A. A [of the source you read]. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

 

Examples:

In-text citation:

The mastery of APA increases an author's chance of scoring well on an assignment (Culver, as cited in Jones, 2009).

or

According to Culver (as cited in Jones, 2009), learning APA "can be tough, but like any skill, it just takes practice" (p. 23).

 

Note: Cite only the secondary source [the source you read] in the reference list.

Reference:

Jones, J. (2009). Scholarly writing tips. Minneapolis, MN: Publishing House.

BC Building Code

In-text citation:

  ...applies to the building subsurface (BC Office of Housing and Construction Standards, 2012).

Reference: 

BC Office of Housing and Construction Standards. (2012). BC Building Code (Division B, subsection 4.2.2). Retrieved from http://www.bccodes.ca.