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ASA Style Guide

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General Guidelines for ASA Style

American Sociological Association (ASA) style is generally used for papers in sociology. 

ASA requires in-text citations and a list of references at the end of the paper. 

Each in-text citation must provide the information necessary to identify the source in the list of references, and each reference must provide the information necessary to locate exactly that source.

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In-Text Citation

Cite your sources directly in the text of your paper, giving only the last name of the author and the date of publication.
Smith (2005) suggests that...
If the author's name does not occur in the text, put it in the parentheses with the date:
One study (Smith 2005) suggests that...
If page numbers are necessary, put them after the date, separated by a colon:
(Smith 2005:53-59)

If a work has two authors, give both names:
(Smith and Jones 2009)

If a work has three authors, give all three names in the first citation, but in subsequent citations use the name of the first author followed by et. al:
(Smith, Jones, and Levy 2011) . . . (Smith et. al. 2011)

If a work has more than three authors, use "et. al." from the very first citation. So for a work by Levy, Rogers, Klein and Ramsbottom, all citations, including the first one, should read:
(Levy et. al. 2011)

If a work is a reprint of previous publication, put the earliest publication date in brackets before the most recent one:
(Jones [1957] 2010) or Jones ([1957] 2010) claims that...

If multiple citations occur together, separate them with semi-colons:
(Smith 2005; Smith, Jones and Levy 2009; Levy et. al 2011)

If a work is unpublished but scheduled for publication, use “forthcoming” in place of the date:
(Smith forthcoming)

If no date is available, use the abbreviation “N.d.” for “no date”:
(Smith N.d.)

IIf there is no author given, use the name of the organization or “corporate author” that is responsible for the publication:
(American Sociological Association 2010)